Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether serum concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100-B in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients are higher than in serum of healthy controls.
Material and methods: Blood samples from 104 MTBI patients were taken shortly after the trauma for measurement of S-100B and NSE in serum. In 92 healthy persons these markers were also measured. Marker concentrations in serum of patients and controls were compared. In the patient group the relation between serum-marker concentrations and clinical symptoms and signs, that occurred shortly after the traumatic event, were evaluated.
Results: Median NSE concentration was only slightly higher in patients (9.8 microg/l; 10 to 90 percentile range 6.9 to 14.3 microg/ l) than in controls (9.4 microg/l; 6.3 to 13.3 microg/l). Median S-100B concentration was significantly higher in patients (0.25 microg/l; 0.00 to 0.68 microg/l) than in controls (0.02 microg/l; 0.00 to 0.13 microg/l). An association was found between S-100B concentrations and vomiting in patients.
Conclusions: S-100B is a useful marker for brain damage in MTBI patients and seems to be associated with the presence of vomiting after the trauma.