The DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS) is a relatively common human disorder, usually associated with deletions of chromosome 22q11. The genetic basis for the wide range of developmental anomalies in the heart, glands and facial structures has been elusive. We have investigated the potential role of one candidate gene, Tbx1, which encodes a transcription factor of the T-box family, by producing a null mutation in mice. We found that mice heterozygous for the mutation had a high incidence of cardiac outflow tract anomalies, thus modeling one of the major abnormalities of the human syndrome. Moreover, Tbx1-/- mice displayed a wide range of developmental anomalies encompassing almost all of the common DGS/VCFS features, including hypoplasia of the thymus and parathyroid glands, cardiac outflow tract abnormalities, abnormal facial structures, abnormal vertebrae and cleft palate. On the basis of this phenotype in mice, we propose that TBX1 in humans is a key gene in the etiology of DGS/VCFS.