Various studies have already shown that the fatty acid composition of dietary fat has different effects on hemostasis and platelet function. However, knowledge on this topic is incomplete. In the present study, fifty-eight healthy students received either a 4-week rapeseed oil [high content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and high n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio], an olive oil (high content of MUFA, low n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio) or a sunflower oil (low content of MUFA, low n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio) diet. In each group, effects on hemostatic parameters were compared with a wash-in diet rich in saturated fatty acids with respect to intermediate-time effects on the hemostatic system and platelet function. With the olive oil diet, a reduction of coagulation factors VIIc, XIIc, XIIa, and Xc was found, whereas sunflower oil led to lower values of coagulation factors XIIc, XIIa, and IXc. In all study groups levels of plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin were lower in week 4 than at baseline. Lower fibrinogen binding on platelets was found after the sunflower oil diet, whereas expression of CD62 and spontaneous platelet aggregation were slightly higher after the olive oil diet. However, given the major differences in the fatty acid compositions of the diets, the differences between the groups with respect to hemostasis tended to be small. Therefore, the clinical significance of the present findings remains to be evaluated.