Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscular dystrophy and dysgenesis of the central nervous system and eyes. To clarify the pathomechanism of the ocular involvement in FCMD, we performed postmortem pathological analyses of eyes from three postnatal FCMD cases, two fetal FCMD cases, and three control cases by macroscopic, histopathological, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization approaches. The macroscopic and histopathological examinations revealed a variety of ocular abnormalities such as folding, fusion or dysplasia of the retinas in the FCMD cases both with and without ophthalmological alterations. Immunoreactivities for collagen IV and laminin, produced by Müller cells, as the basement membrane components, were less intense in the inner limiting membrane of the FCMD retinas than in that of the control retinas. A number of the perivascular glial cells containing S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein were increased in the postnatal FCMD cases. Immunoreactivities for vimentin, glutamate transporter-1, glutamine synthase and ornithine aminotransferase, expressed in the Müller cells, were undetectable in the fetal FCMD retinas, and reduced in the postnatal FCMD retinas compared with the control retinas. Fukutin mRNA signals were distributed diffusely in the retinoblast layer of the control retinas, focally in the retinoblast layer of the fetal FCMD retinas, and only in the dysplastic areas with rosette formation of the postnatal FCMD retinas, composed of retinoblasts and other retinal cells including the Müller cells. The present findings suggest that the Müller cells are implicated in the retinal pathology of FCMD.