Traditional ways of identification of bacteria by phenotypic characteristics cannot be used for non-cultivable organisms and organisms with unusual biochemical profiles. In this study, an Enterobacteriaceae was isolated in pure growth from the mid-stream urine of a 67-year old renal transplant recipient with urinary tract infection. Conventional biochemical tests did not reveal a pattern resembling any known member of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The Vitek system (GNI+) showed that it was 18% Leclercia adecarboxylata and 55% Klebsiella ozaenae; whereas the API system (20E) showed that it was 99.8% Rahnella aquatilis. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing showed that there was 7 base differences between the isolate and Enterobacter cloacae, 18 base differences between the isolate and Enterobacter asburiae, 17 base differences between the isolate and Enterobacter cancerogenus, 35 base differences between the isolate and K. ozaenae, 27 base differences between the isolate and L. adecarboxylata, and 72 base differences between the isolate and R. aquatilis, indicating that the isolate most closely resembled a strain of E. cloacae. Identification of the organism in this study is important, as the choice of antibiotics would be radically different. In this case, cephalosporins should be avoided regardless of in-vitro susceptibility as cephalosporins are well-known to select for AmpC derepressed mutants in Enterobacter, and previous administration of third-generation cephalosporins is more likely to be associated with multidrug resistant Enterobacter isolates than is administration of antibiotics that do not include a third-generation cephalosporin.