Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer

Breast Cancer Res. 2001;3(1):41-6. doi: 10.1186/bcr269. Epub 2000 Nov 29.


The present review addresses the capacity of optical imaging to resolve functional and molecular characteristics of breast cancer. We focus on recent developments in optical imaging that allow three-dimensional reconstruction of optical signatures in the human breast using diffuse optical tomography (DOT). These technologic advances allow the noninvasive, in vivo imaging and quantification of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of contrast agents that target the physiologic and molecular functions of tumors. Hence, malignancy differentiation can be based on a novel set of functional features that are complementary to current radiologic imaging methods. These features could enhance diagnostic accuracy, lower the current state-of-the-art detection limits, and play a vital role in therapeutic strategy and monitoring.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Contrast Media
  • Diagnostic Imaging / methods*
  • Female
  • Fluorescence
  • Genetic Markers / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Models, Biological
  • Optics and Photonics
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Transillumination
  • Ultrasonography


  • Contrast Media
  • Genetic Markers