A population-based case-control study was conducted in Los Angeles, California, which involved 1,514 incident cases of bladder cancer and an equal number of age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched controls. Information on personal use of hair dyes was obtained from 897 cases and their matched controls. After adjustment for cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for bladder cancer, women who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month experienced a 2.1-fold risk of bladder cancer relative to non-users (p for trend = 0.04). Risk increased to 3.3 (95% CI = 1.3-8.4) among regular (at least monthly) users of 15 or more years. Occupational exposure to hair dyes was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in this study. Subjects who worked for 10 or more years as hairdressers or barbers experienced a 5-fold (95% CI = 1.3-19.2) increase in risk compared to individuals not exposed.
Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.