Gynecomastia and the complete circumareolar approach in the surgical management of skin redundancy

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001 Apr 1;107(4):948-54. doi: 10.1097/00006534-200104010-00007.


Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast due to a physiological or pathological factor that interferes with the balance between estrogens and androgens in the serum. Gynecomastia itself requires no treatment unless the persistent enlargement of the male breast is a source of embarrassment and/or distress for the adolescent or adult man. The indications for the surgical treatment of gynecomastia are founded on two main objectives: (1) the restoration of male chest shape and (2) diagnostic evaluation of suspected breast lesions. The diagnostic evaluation begins with an adequate history and a thorough breast examination helped by laboratory tests and instrumental research. Several approaches for surgical treatment have been described in the literature. Some problems arise in patients who have significant enlargement and ptosis of the breast that will require skin reduction and in some patients requiring nipple-areola complex reduction. The authors believe that the complete circumareolar technique with purse-string suture creates the best aesthetic results, with fewer complications, in patients with moderate and severe ptotic glandular breast enlargements that have skin redundancy combined with areolar enlargement. From 1995 through 1999, a total of 10 male patients with moderate to severe gynecomastia were treated surgically using a complete circumareolar approach. All patients achieved a good aesthetic contour of the chest. Only two patients required a revision of the circumareolar scar to correct postoperative enlargement.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Esthetics
  • Gynecomastia / etiology
  • Gynecomastia / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mammaplasty / methods*
  • Nipples / surgery*
  • Suture Techniques
  • Treatment Outcome