Geneticists have repeatedly turned to population isolates for mapping and cloning Mendelian disease genes. Population isolates possess many advantages in this regard. Foremost among these is the tendency for affected individuals to share ancestral haplotypes derived from a handful of founders. These haplotype signatures have guided scientists in the fine mapping of scores of rare disease genes. The past successes with Mendelian disorders using population isolates have prompted unprecedented interest among medical researchers in both the public and private sectors. Despite the obvious genetic and environmental complications, geneticists have targeted several population isolates for mapping genes for complex diseases.