Rats with bilateral ibotenic acid lesions centered on the hippocampus (HPC) or perirhinal cortex (PRC) and sham-operated controls were tested in a series of object recognition and spatial memory tasks. Both HPC and PRC rats displayed reduced habituation in a novel environment and were impaired in an object-location task. HPC rats were severely impaired in both the reference and working-memory versions of the water maze and radial arm maze tasks. In contrast, although PRC rats displayed mild deficits in the reference memory version of the water maze and radial arm maze tasks, they were markedly impaired in the working-memory version of both the tasks. These findings demonstrate that under certain conditions both the HPC and PRC play a role in the processing of spatial memory. Further investigation of these conditions will provide important new insights into the role of these structures in memory processes.