Analysis of the physicochemical interactions between Clostridium difficile toxins and cholestyramine using liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Mar 9;1546(1):171-84. doi: 10.1016/s0167-4838(01)00138-8.


A potential therapy for antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis is to bind Clostridium difficile toxins A and B using cholestyramine, a hydrophobic anion exchange medium. Frontal analysis in isotonic phosphate buffer was studied using post-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde, which gave a highly sensitive (> or =30 ng) flow-through analysis. Following load (1.5-3.0 microg toxin/3.6 mg), toxin A was bound at a slightly higher capacity than B, due to slower kinetics. A salt gradient eluted roughly 20% of bound toxin A with 0.6 M NaCl and toxin B with 1.1 M NaCl, hence toxin A showed weaker electrostatic affinity. The remainder of toxin A (65%) and some of toxin B (10% out of 50%) were eluted using a subsequent gradient to 60% acetonitrile in normal saline, which measured predominantly hydrophobic binding. Low and high affinity populations of both toxins were observed. Glycocholic acid or amino acids were competitive binders, although these components had little effect on the toxin A population bound primarily through ionic interactions. Competitive protein constituents in hamster cecal contents were also profiled. These results help to explain the variable clinical response in using cholestyramine to treat colitis. Using quaternary amine-polyhydroxymethacrylate (PHM) ion exchange chromatography, a trend for increased binding at higher pH was observed, especially for toxin A. Binding to strong cation exchange resins (sulfonate-PHM) was not observed. A range of reversed phase media retained both toxins, although recovery was very poor relative to protein standards. Size exclusion chromatography with light scattering detection showed that toxin B exists in different aggregation states, while toxin A remains monomeric.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anion Exchange Resins / chemistry*
  • Anion Exchange Resins / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacterial Proteins*
  • Bacterial Toxins / chemistry*
  • Binding, Competitive
  • Buffers
  • Cholestyramine Resin / chemistry*
  • Cholestyramine Resin / therapeutic use
  • Chromatography, Gel
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  • Chromatography, Liquid / methods
  • Clostridioides difficile / chemistry*
  • Cricetinae
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / drug therapy
  • Enterotoxins / chemistry*
  • Gastrointestinal Contents / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Lasers


  • Anion Exchange Resins
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Buffers
  • Enterotoxins
  • tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile
  • toxB protein, Clostridium difficile
  • Cholestyramine Resin