Purpose: Botulinum toxin injection into the external urinary sphincter in spinal cord injured men with detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia has been reported. We expand the clinical use of botulinum toxin for a variety of bladder outlet obstructions and to decrease outlet resistance in patients with acontractile detrusor but who wish to void by the Valsalva maneuver.
Materials and methods: Prospective treatment was performed for voiding dysfunction in 8 men and 13 women 34 to 74 years old. The reasons for voiding dysfunction included neurogenic detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in 12 cases, pelvic floor spasticity in 8 and acontractile detrusor in 1 patient with multiple sclerosis who wished to void by the Valsalva maneuver. Using a rigid cystoscope and a collagen injection needle, a total of 80 to 100 units of botulinum A toxin (Botox) were injected into the external sphincter at the 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock positions.
Results: Preoperatively 19 of 21 patients were on indwelling or intermittent catheterization. After botulinum A injection all but 1 patient were able to void without catheterization. No acute complications, such as general paralysis or respiratory depression, occurred and none of the patients had dribbling or stress urinary incontinence. Postoperative post-void residual decreased by 71% and voiding pressures decreased on average 38%. Of the 21 patients 14 (67%) reported significant subjective improvement in voiding. Followup ranges from 3 to 16 months, with a maximum of 3 botulinum A injections in some patients.
Conclusions: Urethral sphincter botulinum injection should be considered for complex voiding dysfunction. Encouraging improvement without complications were seen in most of our patients. We have expanded the use of botulinum toxin to treat pelvic floor spasticity and also women.