Purpose: We hypothesized that alterations in Y chromosome gene expression may be associated with prostate cancer. To test this hypothesis we analyzed the expression of 19 Y chromosome genes in benign and malignant prostate tissue.
Materials and methods: To study the expression of Y chromosome genes RNA was extracted from prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue as well as from prostate cancer cell lines. RNA was reverse transcribed and polymerase chain reaction amplified using specific primers. These primers were designed for each gene sequence obtained from the gene data bank. We analyzed 19 Y chromosome genes using 6 cell lines, 7 BPH and 7 prostate cancer tissues. Normal testis RNA served as a positive control.
Results: Of the 19 genes analyzed in cell lines BPH-1 cells expressed the RPS4Y, USP9Y, TMSB4Y and DBY genes; DUPro expressed RPS4Y, USP9Y, TMSB4Y, DBY and UTY; DU145 expressed DAZ, RPS4Y, USP9Y, TMSB4Y, DBY, EIAFIY, PRKY and SMCY; LNCaP expressed TSPY, SRY, BPY1, PRY, DAZ, RBMIH, RPS4Y, DBY, EIAFIY, PRKY and SMCY; ND1 expressed DAZ, RPS4Y, USP9Y, TMSB4Y, DBY, EIAFIY, PRKY and SMCY; and PC3 expressed RPS4Y, USP9Y and DBY. BPH tissue expressed the SRY, PRY, DBY, PRKY, RPS4Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y and ZFY genes. Prostate cancer tissue expressed the PRY, TSPY, USP9Y, UTY, DBY, SMCY, ZFY, EIAFIY, TMSB4Y and RPS4Y genes.
Conclusions: The differential expression of Y chromosome genes in prostate cancer, BPH tissue and prostate cancer cell lines indicates that they may have a role in prostate cancer.