Primary immunodeficiencies comprise a broad group of disorders due to germline mutations in genes regulating lymphocyte development and function. One of these genes, DSHP (also known as SH2D1A, SAP), is mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, hypogammaglobulinenia, and lymphoma. Expressed primarily in T and NK cells, DSHP consists of a single SH2 domain and short carboxyl-terminal tail. The presence of a single SH2 domain, without other functional motifs, suggests that DSHP may be a physiologic competitor of other SH2 domain-containing proteins whose binding to phosphotyrosine controls lymphocyte activation and/or function. DSHP binds to the cytoplasmic domains of CDw150 (Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule, SLAM) and 2B4, and may regulate signals transmitted by these receptors in T and NK cells, respectively. Unlike other SH2 domain-containing proteins, DSHP associates with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tyrosine residues, and crystallography studies have revealed novel properties of the DSHP SH2 domain. Future studies exploring the function of DSHP during lymphocyte proliferation and activation should improve our ability to diagnose and treat XLP and possibly other human diseases associated with EBV.