The kallikrein family of serine proteases has been investigated in many inflammatory disorders as molecular mapping, gene characterisation and cloning of kinin receptor genes have unfolded experimentally. In the molecular events of the inflammatory response the kallikrein cascade plays a significant role, since it is considered to initiate and maintain systemic inflammatory responses and immune-modulated disorders. A primary event is the chemotactic attraction of neutrophils which deliver the kallikrein-kinin cascade to sites of cellular injury and carcinogenic transformation of cells. The present study establishes the casual involvement of the kallikrein cascade in infection, inflammatory joint disease, acute transplant rejection, renal glomerular diseases, angiogenesis and carcinoma. We provide strong evidence for new or enhanced expression of kinin B1 receptors in inflammation, and additionally the induction of kallikrein genes in angiogenesis and carcinoma. The results provide insights into possible roles of kallikrein inhibitors and kinin receptor antagonists.