Evaluation of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-brief) in laboratory and clinical settings

Nicotine Tob Res. 2001 Feb;3(1):7-16. doi: 10.1080/14622200020032051.


A brief, 10-item version of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU; Tiffany & Drobes, British Journal of Addiction 86:1467-1476, 1991) was administered to 221 active cigarette smokers in a laboratory setting (Study 1) and to 112 smokers enrolled in a comprehensive smoking cessation program (Study 2). In the laboratory setting, craving to smoke was evaluated in response to neutral and smoking-related stimuli. In the clinical setting, craving was assessed prior to cessation and again during treatment. Factor analyses revealed that a two-factor solution best described the item structure of the QSU-Brief across conditions. Factor 1 items reflected a strong desire and intention to smoke, with smoking perceived as rewarding for active smokers. Factor 2 items represented an anticipation of relief from negative affect with an urgent desire to smoke. The findings were consistent with the expressions of craving found in the 32-item version of the QSU (Tiffany & Drobes, 1991). Regression analyses demonstrated stronger baseline mood intensity and self-reported tendency to smoke to achieve pleasurable effects and to experience the desire to smoke when cigarettes are unavailable were predictive of general levels of craving report in active smokers in the laboratory and clinical setting. The findings supported a multidimensional conceptualization of craving to smoke and demonstrated the utility of a brief multidimensional measure of craving.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Laboratories
  • Random Allocation
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Smoking*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology*