Direct regulation of the muscle-identity gene apterous by a Hox protein in the somatic mesoderm

Development. 2001 Apr;128(8):1221-30. doi: 10.1242/dev.128.8.1221.


Hox genes control segment identity in the mesoderm as well as in other tissues. Most evidence indicates that Hox genes act cell-autonomously in muscle development, although this remains a controversial issue. We show that apterous expression in the somatic mesoderm is under direct Hox control. We have identified a small enhancer element of apterous (apME680) that regulates reporter gene expression in the LT1-4 muscle progenitors. We show that the product of the Hox gene Antennapedia is present in the somatic mesoderm of the second and third thoracic segments. Through complementary alterations in the Antennapedia protein and in its binding sites on apME680, we show that Antennapedia positively regulates apterous in a direct manner, demonstrating unambiguously its cell-autonomous role in muscle development. Finally, we determine that LT1-4 muscles contain more nuclei in the thorax than in the abdomen and we propose that one of the segmental differences under Hox control is the number of myoblasts allocated to the formation of specific muscles in different segments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Drosophila / embryology
  • Drosophila / genetics
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / physiology
  • LIM-Homeodomain Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Muscles / cytology
  • Muscles / embryology
  • Muscles / physiology*
  • Nuclear Proteins*
  • Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein
  • Antp protein, Drosophila
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • LIM-Homeodomain Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • ap protein, Drosophila