Purpose: To summarize the prevalence and patterns of uveitis in children.
Methods: Pertinent articles were reviewed.
Results: Children constitute 5-10% of the patients with uveitis seen at tertiary referral centers, and girls appear to develop uveitis slightly more frequently than boys. Among all children with intraocular inflammation, anterior uveitis accounts for 30-40%, posterior uveitis accounts for 40-50%, intermediate uveitis accounts for 10-20%, and diffuse uveitis accounts for 5-10%. The most common cause of anterior uveitis is juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), whereas the most frequent type of posterior uveitis is toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Most cases of intermediate and diffuse uveitis are bilateral, chronic, and idiopathic. The most common causes of vision loss in children with uveitis are cataract, band keratopathy, glaucoma, and cystoid macular edema. Up to one-third of the children with uveitis are left with severely impaired vision as a result of these complications.
Conclusions: Uveitis is an important cause of ocular morbidity in children. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to minimize the risk of long-term vision loss.