Autism has been described in association with a variety of medical and genetic conditions. We previously reported on a patient whose clinical phenotype was compatible with both fetal valproate syndrome (FVS) and autism. Here we present five additional patients with FVS and autism. In all five of our patients, there was evidence of cognitive deficits, manifestations of autism, and typical phenotypic characteristics of FVS. The association between this known teratogen and autism has both clinical and research implications.