Herein we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel human Toll-like receptor (hTLR) that we term hTLR10. Human TLR10 contains 811 amino acid residues. Deduced amino acid sequence analysis reveals that like the other known hTLRs (hTLR1-9) it is characterized by a signal peptide followed by multiple leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a cysteine-rich domain, a transmembrane sequence and a cytoplasmic domain homologous to that of the human interleukin-1 receptor. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that among all the hTLRs, hTLR10 is most closely related to hTLR1 and hTLR6; the overall amino acid identity is 50% and 49%, respectively. hTLR10 mRNA is most highly expressed in lymphoid tissues such as spleen, lymph node, thymus, and tonsil. Expression analysis of cell lines indicates a predominance in a variety of immune cell types. Thus, hTLR10 is preferentially expressed in tissues and cells involved in immune responses.