Correlations between serum progesterone and smoking, and the growth fraction of cervical squamous cell carcinoma

Anticancer Res. Sep-Oct 2000;20(5C):3637-40.


Background: Possible correlations between growth fraction of squamous cervical carcinomas and serum progesterone (se-P) concentrations, smoking habits and DNA ploidy were studied.

Materials and methods: The DNA S-phase fraction (SPF), measured by flow cytometry was used as a marker of tumour growth in 103 cases of squamous cervical cancer stage IB-IV. DNA-ploidy (peridiploidy vs. aneuploidy), Se-P, se-Estradiol, smoking habits, parity, menopausal status, clinical stage and histopathological grading were compared to SPF < 14% vs. SPF > or = 14%.

Results: Aneuploidy, (odds ratio (OR) 10.0), se-P > or = 2.6 nmol/l (OR 7.5) and smoking (OR 3.0) were significantly associated with SPF > or = 14%, after adjustments for all factors included in the study. The association with se-P and smoking was attributed to an increased risk for the premenopausal women in the study.

Discussion: In this study an increased tumour growth was associated with increased leves of se-P, smoking and aneuploidy in women with invasive squamous cervical carcinoma. This study seems to experimentally confirm epidemiological studies, where smoking and long-term use of oral contraceptives have been linked to cervical neoplasms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aneuploidy
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology*
  • Contraceptives, Oral
  • Estradiol / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopause
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Odds Ratio
  • Parity
  • Ploidies
  • Progesterone / blood*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / blood
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology*


  • Contraceptives, Oral
  • Progesterone
  • Estradiol