Background: Possible correlations between growth fraction of squamous cervical carcinomas and serum progesterone (se-P) concentrations, smoking habits and DNA ploidy were studied.
Materials and methods: The DNA S-phase fraction (SPF), measured by flow cytometry was used as a marker of tumour growth in 103 cases of squamous cervical cancer stage IB-IV. DNA-ploidy (peridiploidy vs. aneuploidy), Se-P, se-Estradiol, smoking habits, parity, menopausal status, clinical stage and histopathological grading were compared to SPF < 14% vs. SPF > or = 14%.
Results: Aneuploidy, (odds ratio (OR) 10.0), se-P > or = 2.6 nmol/l (OR 7.5) and smoking (OR 3.0) were significantly associated with SPF > or = 14%, after adjustments for all factors included in the study. The association with se-P and smoking was attributed to an increased risk for the premenopausal women in the study.
Discussion: In this study an increased tumour growth was associated with increased leves of se-P, smoking and aneuploidy in women with invasive squamous cervical carcinoma. This study seems to experimentally confirm epidemiological studies, where smoking and long-term use of oral contraceptives have been linked to cervical neoplasms.