Primary liver cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. According to the statistics of our country, primary liver cancer claims 20.40 lives per 100,000 people annually, with 19.98 per 100,000 in cities and 23.59 per 100,000 in rural areas, ranking as the 2nd and the 1st leading cause of cancer death respectively. Of all the newly enrolled cases in the world each year, 45% are found in the mainland of China. In the southeast areas of high incidence, the situation is even worse with tumors tending to occur in a younger age group. In this paper, we summarized our 40-year experience and progress in diagnosis and treatment of primary liver cancer.