The purpose of this review is to describe the most common complications of home total parenteral nutrition, their identification, treatment and prevention. Data sources were manuscripts and abstracts published in the English literature since 1968. Studies were selected for summarization in this review on the basis of clinical relevance to the practicing clinician. Home total parenteral nutrition is a relatively safe, life-saving method for nutrient delivery in patients with compromised gastrointestinal function. However, numerous complications, with associated morbidity and mortality, involving the delivery system and the gastrointestinal, renal, and skeletal systems may develop. Catheter-related complications are often preventable and treatable when they occur, although renal and bone abnormalities have elusive etiologies.