Purpose: To test the feasibility of noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) of benign fibroadenomas in the breast.
Materials and methods: Eleven fibroadenomas in nine patients under local anesthesia were treated with MR imaging-guided FUS. Based on a T2-weighted definition of target volumes, sequential sonications were delivered to treat the entire target. Temperature-sensitive phase-difference-based MR imaging was performed during each sonication to monitor focus localization and tissue temperature changes. After the procedure, T2-weighted and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging were performed to evaluate immediate and long-term effects.
Results: Thermal imaging sequences were improved over the treatment period, with 82% (279 of 342) of the hot spots visible in the last seven treatments. The MR imager was used to measure temperature elevation (12.8 degrees -49.9 degrees C) from these treatments. Eight of the 11 lesions treated demonstrated complete or partial lack of contrast material uptake on posttherapy T1-weighted images. Three lesions showed no marked decrease of contrast material uptake. This lack of effective treatment was most likely due to a lower acoustic power and/or patient movement that caused misregistration. No adverse effects were detected, except for one case of transient edema in the pectoralis muscle 2 days after therapy.
Conclusion: MR imaging-guided FUS can be performed to noninvasively coagulate benign breast fibroadenomas.