Associations between genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 and prostate cancer (PCa) were analyzed in a case-control study of 315 individuals. The frequency of valine (Val)/valine (Val) genotypes for CYP1A1 was 11.3% in cases compared with 5.5% in controls, this polymorphism thus being associated with a significantly increased risk of PCa (odds ratio=2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-5.57). No links were detected between PCa and polymorphisms in other enzymes. However, the combination of CYP1A1 (Ile/Val and/or Val/Val) polymorphisms with the GSTM1 null type resulted in an OR of 2.2 (CI=1.10-4.57, 1.12-4.20, respectively). This study suggests that the CYP1A1 polymorphism and its combination with GSTM1 may be associated with PCa susceptibility in the Japanese population.