Inverted duplicated chromosome 15 (Inv dup ) syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by psychologic or intellectual language delay; neurologic signs, such as hypotonia, ataxia, and epilepsy; mental retardation ranging from mild to severe; and facial dysmorphisms. All patients present with a psychopathologic impairment that is highly variable in severity but always classifiable as pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Many genetic mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the clinical variability. This article describes the neurologic and psychopathologic features of six Inv dup(15) patients, one male and five females, between 8 and 14 years of age, all with a maternal marker chromosome. Four patients were diagnosed with PDD not otherwise specified, whereas two patients received a diagnosis of autism. Epilepsy was present in three patients (two generalized symptomatic and one focal symptomatic), and a correlation between the severity of the disease and its outcome was not always observed. Nevertheless, the influence of gene content of the marker chromosome, particularly the three gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor subunit genes, may represent the link between epilepsy, mental retardation, and PDD.