The effect of surface roughness and contaminant on the dynamic friction of porcelain tile

Appl Ergon. 2001 Apr;32(2):173-84. doi: 10.1016/s0003-6870(00)00054-5.


Surface roughness affects friction, but it is not clear what surface roughness characteristics are better correlated with friction. The average of the maximum height above the mean line in each cut-off length (Rpm) and the arithmetical average of surface slope (deltaa) had the highest correlation with dynamic friction coefficient in a previous study. The previous study was expanded to two different footwear materials and four different contaminants on a porcelain tile in the current investigation. The results showed that dynamic friction decreased as the interface speed and glycerol content in the contaminant were increased due to the hydrodynamic lubrication effect. Deltaa had the highest correlation with friction for most of the test conditions with neolite. For Four S rubber, friction coefficient appeared to have the highest correlation with the parameters related to the surface void volume at 30% glycerol content, related to the surface slope at 70 and 85% glycerol contents, and related to the peak to valley distance at 99% glycerol content. A good indicator of surface slip resistance probably should consist of the surface parameters representing the surface slope, the surface void volume and the surface peak-to-valley distance with the coefficients determined by the system parameters.

MeSH terms

  • Accidental Falls / prevention & control*
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Dental Porcelain / analysis*
  • Floors and Floorcoverings / classification*
  • Friction*
  • Humans
  • Industrial Oils / analysis
  • Male
  • Materials Testing / statistics & numerical data
  • Rubber / analysis
  • Shoes / adverse effects
  • Shoes / classification*
  • Surface Properties*
  • United Kingdom


  • Dental Porcelain
  • Rubber