Dimethyl sulfoxide affects the selection of splice sites

J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17597-602. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M011769200. Epub 2001 Mar 1.


Depending on the cell lines and cell types, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) can induce or block cell differentiation and apoptosis. Although Me2SO treatment alters many levels of gene expression, the molecular processes that are directly affected by Me2SO have not been clearly identified. Here, we report that Me2SO affects splice site selection on model pre-mRNAs incubated in a nuclear extract prepared from HeLa cells. A shift toward the proximal pair of splice sites was observed on pre-mRNAs carrying competing 5'-splice sites or competing 3'-splice sites. Because the activity of recombinant hnRNP A1 protein was similar when added to extracts containing or lacking Me2SO, the activity of endogenous A1 proteins is probably not affected by Me2SO. Notably, in a manner reminiscent of SR proteins, Me2SO activated splicing in a HeLa S100 extract. Moreover, the activity of recombinant SR proteins in splice site selection in vitro was improved by Me2SO. Polar solvents like DMF and formamide similarly modulated splice site selection in vitro but formamide did not activate a HeLa S100 extract. We propose that Me2SO improves ionic interactions between splicing factors that contain RS-domains. The direct impact of Me2SO on alternative splicing may explain, at least in part, the different and sometimes opposite effects of Me2SO on cell differentiation and apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3' Untranslated Regions / drug effects
  • 3' Untranslated Regions / genetics
  • Alternative Splicing / drug effects*
  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide / pharmacology*
  • Exons
  • Formamides / pharmacology
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics
  • HeLa Cells
  • Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B*
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Mice
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics*
  • RNA Precursors / genetics
  • RNA Precursors / metabolism
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Ribonucleoproteins / metabolism*


  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • Formamides
  • Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • RNA Precursors
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Ribonucleoproteins
  • formamide
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide