Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), produced by enteroendocrine L-cells, regulates intestinal growth. This study investigates circulating and intestinal GLP-2 levels in conditions with altered L-cell exposure to nutrients. Rats were allocated to the following experimental groups: ileal-jejunal transposition, resection of the proximal or distal half of the small intestine, and appropriate sham-operated controls. After two weeks, ileal-jejunal transposition led to pronounced growth of the transposed segment and also of the remaining intestinal segments. Plasma GLP-2 levels increased twofold, whereas GLP-2 levels in the intestinal segments were unchanged. In resected rats with reduced intestinal capacity, adaptive small bowel growth was more pronounced following proximal resection than distal small bowel resection. Circulating GLP-2 levels increased threefold in proximally resected animals, and twofold in the distally resected group. Tissue GLP-2 levels were unchanged in resected rats. The data indicate that transposition of a distal part of the small intestine, and thereby exposure of L cells to a more nutrient-rich chyme, leads to intestinal growth. The adaptive intestinal growth is associated with increased plasma levels of GLP-2, and GLP-2 seems to act in an endocrine as well as a paracrine manner.