An association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations 11778G>A and 14484T>C and mtDNA haplogroup J suggests that this haplogroup harbors substitutions capable of modifying the phenotype of Leber's disease. Our knowledge of the compilation of substitutions in haplogroup J is based on only a small number of complete mtDNA sequences, however. We constructed phylogenetic networks for mtDNA haplogroup TJ that were based on the sequence of the complete coding region and the hypervariable segment I, respectively, in 28 Finnish samples. The networks revealed a subdivision of the haplogroup into subclusters T1, T2, J1, and J2, while comparison of the two networks suggested nine fast evolving nucleotide sites in the hypervariable segment I. Genotypes of patients harboring 11778G>A or 14484T>C were obtained from the literature and were then placed in the network. Only four substitutions were found to be common to the patients, but none of these was unique to haplogroup J. If increased penetrance of the 11778G>A and 14484T>C mutations in patients belonging to haplogroup J is assumed, combinations of ancient substitutions must be implicated.