Proline-rich peptide from the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi that inhibits photosynthesis of Zooxanthellae

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Apr;67(4):1536-41. doi: 10.1128/AEM.67.4.1536-1541.2001.


The coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi biosynthesizes and secretes an extracellular peptide, referred to as toxin P, which inhibits photosynthesis of coral symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). Toxin P was produced during the stationary phase when the bacterium was grown on peptone or Casamino Acids media at 29 degrees C. Glycerol inhibited the production of toxin P. Toxin P was purified to homogeneity, yielding the following 12-residue peptide: PYPVYAPPPVVP (molecular weight, 1,295.54). The structure of toxin P was confirmed by chemical synthesis. In the presence of 12.5 mM NH(4)Cl, pure natural or synthetic toxin P (10 microM) caused a 64% decrease in the photosynthetic quantum yield of zooxanthellae within 5 min. The inhibition was proportional to the toxin P concentration. Toxin P bound avidly to zooxanthellae, such that subsequent addition of NH(4)Cl resulted in rapid inhibition of photosynthesis. When zooxanthellae were incubated in the presence of NH(4)Cl and toxin P, there was a rapid decrease in the pH (pH 7.8 to 7.2) of the bulk liquid, suggesting that toxin P facilitates transport of NH(3) into the cell. It is known that uptake of NH(3) into cells can destroy the pH gradient and block photosynthesis. This mode of action of toxin P can help explain the mechanism of coral bleaching by V. shiloi.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Toxins / chemistry*
  • Bacterial Toxins / metabolism
  • Bacterial Toxins / pharmacology
  • Cnidaria / microbiology*
  • Culture Media
  • Eukaryota / drug effects
  • Eukaryota / physiology*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Peptides / chemical synthesis
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Peptides / metabolism
  • Peptides / pharmacology*
  • Photosynthesis / drug effects*
  • Proline / chemistry
  • Symbiosis
  • Vibrio / growth & development
  • Vibrio / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Culture Media
  • Peptides
  • Proline