Purpose: To improve local disease control and survival with organ preservation, we conducted a phase II multi-institutional trial with a concomitant taxane-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiation regimen.
Patients and methods: Sixty-four patients with locally advanced squamous cancers (stage IV, 98%; N2/3, 81%) were treated on an intensive regimen consisting of 5-day (120-hour) infusions of paclitaxel (20 mg/m(2)/d) and fluorouracil (600 mg/m(2)/d), oral hydroxyurea 500 mg every 12 hours for 11 doses, and radiation 1.5 Gy bid (T-FH2X). Chemoradiation was administered concomitantly on days 1 to 5 of each 14-day cycle. A full treatment course consisted of five cycles during a 10-week period to a total radiation dose of 72 to 75 Gy.
Results: The median follow-up for the group is 34 months. At 3 years, progression-free survival is 63%, locoregional control is 86%, and systemic control is 79%; overall survival is 60%. Seventeen patients died of recurrent cancer, two died of second primary cancers, and four died of other causes. Side effects observed include anemia (22% required transfusion), leucopenia (34%, grade 3 to 4), and mucositis (84%, grade 3 to 4). Organ preservation principles were maintained. At 1 year posttreatment, 61% of patients had severe xerostomia and 47% had compromised swallowing. There was little disturbance of speech quality in 97% of patients at the same follow-up point.
Conclusion: T-FH2X is a highly active and tolerable concomitant chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiation regimen that induces sustained local tumor control and holds promise for improved survival with organ preservation in high-risk patients. Identification of less toxic therapy and improved distant disease control are needed. T-FH2X should be tested in a randomized trial and compared with a less intensive concomitant regimen that uses once-daily radiation fractionation.