TGFbeta influences Myc, Miz-1 and Smad to control the CDK inhibitor p15INK4b

Nat Cell Biol. 2001 Apr;3(4):400-8. doi: 10.1038/35070086.


Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) is a cytokine that arrests epithelial cell division by switching off the proto-oncogene c-myc and rapidly switching on cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors such as p15INK4b. Gene responses to TGFbeta involve Smad transcription factors that are directly activated by the TGFbeta receptor. Why downregulation of c-myc expression by TGFbeta is required for rapid activation of p15INK4b has remained unknown. Here we provide evidence that TGFbeta signalling prevents recruitment of Myc to the p15INK4b transcriptional initiator by Myc-interacting zinc-finger protein 1 (Miz-1). This relieves repression and enables transcriptional activation by a TGFbeta-induced Smad protein complex that recognizes an upstream p15INK4b promoter region and contacts Miz-1. Thus, two separate TGFbeta-dependent inputs - Smad-mediated transactivation and relief of repression by Myc - keep tight control over p15INK4b activation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • COS Cells
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Gene Silencing
  • Humans
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism*
  • Response Elements
  • Smad2 Protein
  • Smad3 Protein
  • Smad4 Protein
  • Smad7 Protein
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism*
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins*
  • Zinc Fingers*


  • CDKN2B protein, human
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cdkn2b protein, mouse
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • SMAD2 protein, human
  • SMAD3 protein, human
  • SMAD4 protein, human
  • SMAD7 protein, human
  • Smad2 Protein
  • Smad2 protein, mouse
  • Smad3 Protein
  • Smad3 protein, mouse
  • Smad4 Protein
  • Smad4 protein, mouse
  • Smad7 Protein
  • Smad7 protein, mouse
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • ZBTB17 protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases