Left ventricular remodeling is a major cause of progressive heart failure and death after myocardial infarction. Although neoangiogenesis within the infarcted tissue is an integral component of the remodeling process, the capillary network is unable to support the greater demands of the hypertrophied myocardium, resulting in progressive loss of viable tissue, infarct extension and fibrous replacement. Here we show that bone marrow from adult humans contains endothelial precursors with phenotypic and functional characteristics of embryonic hemangioblasts, and that these can be used to directly induce new blood vessel formation in the infarct-bed (vasculogenesis) and proliferation of preexisting vasculature (angiogenesis) after experimental myocardial infarction. The neoangiogenesis resulted in decreased apoptosis of hypertrophied myocytes in the peri-infarct region, long-term salvage and survival of viable myocardium, reduction in collagen deposition and sustained improvement in cardiac function. The use of cytokine-mobilized autologous human bone-marrow-derived angioblasts for revascularization of infarcted myocardium (alone or in conjunction with currently used therapies) has the potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with left ventricular remodeling.