Transcriptional repression and developmental functions of the atypical vertebrate GATA protein TRPS1

EMBO J. 2001 Apr 2;20(7):1715-25. doi: 10.1093/emboj/20.7.1715.

Abstract

Known vertebrate GATA proteins contain two zinc fingers and are required in development, whereas invertebrates express a class of essential proteins containing one GATA-type zinc finger. We isolated the gene encoding TRPS1, a vertebrate protein with a single GATA-type zinc finger. TRPS1 is highly conserved between Xenopus and mammals, and the human gene is implicated in dominantly inherited tricho-rhino-phalangeal (TRP) syndromes. TRPS1 is a nuclear protein that binds GATA sequences but fails to transactivate a GATA-dependent reporter. Instead, TRPS1 potently and specifically represses transcriptional activation mediated by other GATA factors. Repression does not occur from competition for DNA binding and depends on a C-terminal region related to repressive domains found in Ikaros proteins. During mouse development, TRPS1 expression is prominent in sites showing pathology in TRP syndromes, which are thought to result from TRPS1 haploinsufficiency. We show instead that truncating mutations identified in patients encode dominant inhibitors of wild-type TRPS1 function, suggesting an alternative mechanism for the disease. TRPS1 is the first example of a GATA protein with intrinsic transcriptional repression activity and possibly a negative regulator of GATA-dependent processes in vertebrate development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Algal Proteins*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • COS Cells
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Chloroplast Proteins
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • GATA4 Transcription Factor
  • Humans
  • Ikaros Transcription Factor
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology*
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Repressor Proteins / physiology*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • Xenopus laevis
  • Zinc Fingers / genetics
  • Zinc Fingers / physiology*

Substances

  • Algal Proteins
  • Chloroplast Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • GATA4 Transcription Factor
  • GATA4 protein, Xenopus
  • IKZF1 protein, human
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • Zfpn1a1 protein, mouse
  • Ikaros Transcription Factor

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF346836
  • GENBANK/AF346837
  • GENBANK/AF346838