We describe an approach to the quantitative analysis of complex protein mixtures using a MALDI quadrupole time-of-flight (MALDI QqTOF) mass spectrometer and isotope coded affinity tag reagents (Gygi, S. P.; et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 1999, 17, 994-9.). Proteins in mixtures are first labeled on cysteinyl residues using an isotope coded affinity tag reagent, the proteins are enzymatically digested, and the labeled peptides are purified using a multidimensional separation procedure, with the last step being the elution of the labeled peptides from a microcapillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography column directly onto a MALDI sample target. After addition of matrix, the sample spots are analyzed using a MALDI QqTOF mass spectrometer, by first obtaining a mass spectrum of the peptides in each sample spot in order to quantify the ratio of abundance of pairs of isotopically tagged peptides, followed by tandem mass spectrometric analysis to ascertain the sequence of selected peptides for protein identification. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in the quantification and identification of peptides from a control mixture of proteins of known relative concentrations and also in the comparative analysis of protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on two different carbon sources.