Mycoplasma pneumoniae and M. genitalium are genomically distinct but share antigens that induce some serological cross-reactivity. Therefore, the possibility that M. pneumoniae infection of the human respiratory tract might provide immunity to M. genitalium infection of the genital tract was considered. Because of the difficulty of assessing this proposition in man, it was evaluated experimentally in a mouse model. Female BALB/c mice were susceptible to infection of the vagina with M. pneumoniae, whereas those infected previously in the oropharynx with M. pneumoniae were completely immune to infection of the vagina with this mycoplasma. However, all mice with such a respiratory tract infection were susceptible to infection of the vagina with M. genitalium. The findings suggest that an M. pneumoniae infection of the human respiratory tract is unlikely to influence infection of the genital tract by M. genitalium.