Antigenic and genetic characterization of swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated from pneumonia patients in The Netherlands

Virology. 2001 Apr 10;282(2):301-6. doi: 10.1006/viro.2000.0810.


It is generally believed that pigs can serve as an intermediate host for the transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of avian-human reassortant viruses. Here we describe the antigenic and genetic characterization of two influenza A (H1N1) viruses, which were isolated in The Netherlands from two patients who suffered from pneumonia. Both viruses proved to be antigenically and genetically similar to avian-like swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses which currently circulate in European pigs. It is concluded that European swine H1N1 viruses can infect humans directly, causing serious disease without the need for any reassortment event.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Ferrets
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Humans
  • Immune Sera / immunology
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype*
  • Influenza A virus / genetics*
  • Influenza A virus / immunology*
  • Influenza A virus / isolation & purification
  • Influenza A virus / metabolism
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Netherlands
  • Phylogeny
  • Pneumonia, Viral / transmission*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / virology*
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Swine / virology*


  • Immune Sera

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF320057
  • GENBANK/AF320058
  • GENBANK/AF320059
  • GENBANK/AF320060
  • GENBANK/AF320061
  • GENBANK/AF320062
  • GENBANK/AF320063
  • GENBANK/AF320064
  • GENBANK/AF320065
  • GENBANK/AF320066
  • GENBANK/AF320067