Etoposide, an anti-neoplastic agent and a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), exhibits variable oral bioavailability. P-gp, the multidrug resistance gene (mdr1) product, has been considered as an absorption barrier against intestinal drug absorption. Terfenadine, an antihistamine, has been shown to be a P-gp inhibitor. The current study was designed to assess the effect of hydroxyzine, an antihistamine, on the transport of etoposide in the small intestine. Everted rat gut sacs were used to determine the absorption and exsorption of etoposide under different conditions, as rhodamine 123 was chosen to evaluate the role of P-gp in the drug interaction. The results showed that the transport of etoposide was significantly increased from the luminal site to the serosal site in the jejunum by 2- and 4-fold after 90 min in the presence of hydroxyzine and quinidine, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the ileal sacs. This in vitro exsorption study also demonstrated that hydroxyzine could reduce the efflux of etoposide to the luminal site in either jejunum or ileum. The effect of hydroxyzine on the pharmacokinetics of etoposide differed by the in vivo route of administration, thus assuming clinical importance for chemotherapeutic treatment.