Red wine concentrate has been reported to inhibit the catalytic activity of human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Wine contains many polyphenolic compounds, including trans-resveratrol, which is also available commercially as a nutraceutical product. In the present study, we examined the in vitro effect of trans-resveratrol on human CYP3A catalytic activity by employing recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 as model enzymes and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC) as a CYP3A substrate. Trans-resveratrol inhibited BFC O-dealkylation catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in a concentration-dependent manner. In each case, the inhibition was noncompetitive, as determined by Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots of the enzyme kinetic data. The apparent Ki values (mean +/- SEM) for the inhibition by trans-resveratrol of BFC O-dealkylation catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were 10.2+/-1.1 microM and 14.7+/-0.3 microM, respectively. Preincubation of trans-resveratrol with NADPH and CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 for 10 or 15 min prior to initiation of substrate oxidation did not enhance the inhibitory effect, suggesting that this compound was not a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 when BFC was used as the substrate. Overall, our study provides the first demonstration that trans-resveratrol inhibits, in vitro, a substrate oxidation reaction catalyzed by human recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.