Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways: regulation and physiological functions

Endocr Rev. 2001 Apr;22(2):153-83. doi: 10.1210/edrv.22.2.0428.


Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases comprise a family of ubiquitous proline-directed, protein-serine/threonine kinases, which participate in signal transduction pathways that control intracellular events including acute responses to hormones and major developmental changes in organisms. MAP kinases lie in protein kinase cascades. This review discusses the regulation and functions of mammalian MAP kinases. Nonenzymatic mechanisms that impact MAP kinase functions and findings from gene disruption studies are highlighted. Particular emphasis is on ERK1/2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / chemistry
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation


  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases