It has recently been determined that the proteolytic destruction of IkappaB (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) by the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a key role in the immediate elimination of IkappaB from the IkappaB-(NF-kappaB) complex which allows nuclear translocation of free NF-kappaB, thus leading to activation of a multitude of target genes. The SCF(Fbw1) (composed of Skp1, Cul-1, Roc1, and Fbw1) complex, identified as an IkappaBalpha-E3 ligase, binds and ubiquitylates IkappaBalpha phosphorylated by IkappaB kinase that has been activated in response to extracellular signals. The generating poly-ubiquitin chain is finally recognized by the 26S proteasome for ultimate degradation. In this NF-kappaB signalling pathway, it becomes clear that the SCF(Fbw1) activity is enhanced by a ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 (equivalent to Rub1) that modifies Cul-1 in a manner analogous to ubiquitylation, and consequently, IkappaBalpha proteolysis is induced. NEDD8 is a new regulator of the SCF ubiquitin-ligase, functioning as a covalent modifier for proteolytic targeting at a physiological level.