Saccharomyces cerevisiae Elongator mutations confer resistance to the Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin

EMBO J. 2001 Apr 17;20(8):1993-2003. doi: 10.1093/emboj/20.8.1993.


Kluyveromyces lactis killer strains secrete a zymocin complex that inhibits proliferation of sensitive yeast genera including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In search of the putative toxin target (TOT), we used mTn3:: tagging to isolate zymocin-resistant tot mutants from budding yeast. Of these we identified the TOT1, TOT2 and TOT3 genes (isoallelic with ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3, respectively) coding for the histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-associated Elongator complex of RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Other than the typical elp ts-phenotype, tot phenocopies hypersensitivity towards caffeine and Calcofluor White as well as slow growth and a G(1) cell cycle delay. In addition, TOT4 and TOT5 (isoallelic with KTI12 and IKI1, respectively) code for components that associate with ELONGATOR: Intriguingly, strains lacking non-Elongator HATs (gcn5, hat1, hpa3 and sas3) or non-Elongator transcription elongation factors TFIIS (dst1) and Spt4p (spt4) cannot confer resistance towards the K.lactis zymocin, thus providing evidence that Elongator equals TOT and that Elongator plays an important role in signalling toxicity of the K.lactis zymocin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetyltransferases / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Primers
  • Drug Resistance
  • Genes, Fungal
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Killer Factors, Yeast
  • Kluyveromyces*
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Insertional
  • Mutation*
  • Mycotoxins / toxicity*
  • Phenotype
  • RNA Polymerase II / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • DNA Primers
  • ELP2 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Killer Factors, Yeast
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Mycotoxins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • zymocin
  • Acetyltransferases
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • RNA Polymerase II