Rhesus monkey model for Leishmania major transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi sandfly bites

Med Vet Entomol. 2001 Mar;15(1):12-21. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2915.2001.00283.x.


Leishmaniasis research needs a near-human model for investigations of natural infection processes, immunological responses and evaluation of treatments. Therefore, we developed a reproducible system using Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor (Trypanosomatidae: Kinetoplastida), the cause of Old World zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), transmitted to rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta (Zimmerman) (Primates: Cercopithecidae) by sandfly bites of experimentally infected Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Eight monkeys of presumed Indian origin (Leishmania naive) were exposed to bites of female sandflies that had been infected with L. major by membrane-feeding on human blood seeded with amastigotes isolated from hamster footpad lesions. Infection rates of membrane-fed sandflies averaged > 85% seven days after the infective feed, with uniformly high numbers of promastigotes in the stomodaeal valve region of the sandfly gut. Nodules and ulcerating dermal lesions developed on 7/8 monkeys 2-4 weeks post-bite and persisted for 3-7 months. Monkeys also developed satellite lesions beyond the area of sandfly bites on the head, but not on the chest. Three re-challenged monkeys developed lesions that healed faster than lesions from their primary challenges. After infection, monkeys developed delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to a panel of Leishmania skin test antigens (LSTA) and, when tested by ELISA and IFA, showed significant post-infection antibody titres which typically rose for approximately 170 days and then gradually receded during the next 100 days following the first challenge. After the second challenge, antibody titres spiked higher within approximately 50 days and receded more rapidly. In contrast, four rhesus macaques of Chinese origin developed no lesions following infected sandfly bites, although they raised antibodies and LSTA reactions, indicating subclinical infection.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Protozoan / analysis
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
  • Leishmania major
  • Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous / pathology
  • Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous / transmission*
  • Macaca mulatta*
  • Male
  • Phlebotomus / parasitology*
  • Skin / pathology
  • Skin Tests


  • Antibodies, Protozoan