Identification and expression of the genes and purification and characterization of the gene products involved in reactivation of coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase of Citrobacter freundii

Eur J Biochem. 2001 Apr;268(8):2369-78. doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1327.2001.02123.x.


The coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase of Citrobacter freundii is subject to suicide inactivation by the natural substrate glycerol during catalysis. We identified dhaF and dhaG as the genes responsible for reactivation of inactivated dehydratase. Northern blot analyses revealed that both genes were expressed during glycerol fermentation. The dhaF gene is transcribed together with the three structural genes coding for glycerol dehydratase (dhaBCE), whereas dhaG is coexpressed with the dhaT gene encoding 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase. The dhaF and dhaG gene products were copurified to homogeneity from cell-free extracts of a recombinant E. coli strain producing both His6-tagged proteins. Both proteins formed a tight complex with an apparent molecular mass of 150 000 Da. The subunit structure of the native complex is probably alpha2beta2. The factor rapidly reactivated glycerol- or O2-inactivated hologlycerol dehydratase and activated the enzyme-cyanocobalamin complex in the presence of coenzyme B12, ATP, and Mg2+. The DhaF-DhaG complex and DhaF exhibited ATP-hydrolyzing activity, which was not directly linked to the reactivation of dehydratase. The purified DhaF-DhaG complex of C. freundii efficiently cross-activated the enzyme-cyanocobalamin complex and the glycerol-inactivated glycerol dehydratase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. It was not effective with respect to the glycerol dehydratase of Clostridium pasteurianum and to diol dehydratases of enteric bacteria.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics*
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / physiology
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins*
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Blotting, Western
  • Catalysis
  • Cell-Free System
  • Chromatography, Thin Layer
  • Citrobacter freundii / enzymology*
  • Citrobacter freundii / genetics
  • Clostridium / metabolism
  • Cobamides / metabolism*
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Fermentation
  • Glycerol / metabolism
  • Histidine / metabolism
  • Hydro-Lyases / chemistry*
  • Hydro-Lyases / genetics
  • Hydro-Lyases / metabolism
  • Hydrolysis
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / metabolism
  • Magnesium / pharmacology
  • Models, Genetic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Protein Binding
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Cobamides
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Histidine
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • DhaF protein, Citrobacter freundii
  • DhaG protein, Citrobacter freundii
  • Hydro-Lyases
  • glycerol dehydratase
  • cobamamide
  • Magnesium
  • Glycerol

Associated data

  • GENBANK/U09771