A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework

J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001 Mar;80(3):501-19. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.3.501.


A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Achievement*
  • Avoidance Learning
  • Defense Mechanisms*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Freedom
  • Goals*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychological Theory
  • Regression Analysis
  • Self Concept*