In October 1999, the Georgia Department of Human Resources (GDHR) was notified of two cases of severe malnutrition in toddlers. Both cases were associated with the use of commercial alternative milk. In response, GDHR and CDC reviewed Georgia hospital records to assess the frequency and cause of hospitalized cases of rickets and protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The findings of this review indicated that, although no new cases were associated with milk alternatives, three children had PEM and six had vitamin D deficiency rickets. The children with rickets had been breast fed for approximately 6 months while receiving no vitamin D supplementation. Rickets is preventable through the adequate intake of vitamin D. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is examining vitamin D supplementation among breast-fed infants.