Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase (PFK) has been proposed to have a random, nonrapid equilibrium mechanism that produces nonallosteric ATP inhibition as a result of substrate antagonism. The consequences of such a mechanism have been investigated by employing alternative substrates and mutants of the enzyme that produce a variety of nonallosteric kinetic patterns demonstrating substrate inhibition and sigmoid velocity curves. Mutations of a methionine residue in the sugar phosphate binding site produced apparent cooperativity in the interaction of fructose 6-phosphate. Cooperativity could also be seen with native enzyme using a poorly binding substrate, fructose 1-phosphate. With an alternative nucleotide, 1-carboxymethyl-ATP, coupled with a mutation that introduced a negative charge in the nucleotide binding site, one could observe substrate inhibition by fructose 6-phosphate and apparent cooperativity in the interaction with nucleotide. Furthermore, the use of a phosphoryl donor, gamma-thiol-ATP, which greatly reduced the catalytic rate, apparently facilitated the equilibration of all binding reactions and eliminated ATP inhibition. These unusual kinetic patterns could be interpreted within the random, steady-state model as reflecting changes in the rates of particular binding and catalytic events.