In this report, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene osm-5 is homologous to the Chlamydomonas gene IFT88 and the mouse autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) gene, Tg737. The function of this ARPKD gene may be evolutionarily conserved: mutations result in defective ciliogenesis in worms , algae , and mice [2, 3]. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for the development and maintenance of motile and sensory cilia . The biochemically isolated IFT particle from Chlamydomonas flagella is composed of 16 polypeptides in one of two Complexes (A and B) [5, 6] whose movement is powered by kinesin II (anterograde) and cytoplasmic dynein (retrograde) [7-9]. We demonstrate that OSM-5 (a Complex B polypeptide), DAF-10 and CHE-11 (two Complex A polypeptides), and CHE-2 , a previously uncategorized IFT polypeptide, all move at the same rate in C. elegans sensory cilia. In the absence of osm-5, the C. elegans autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) gene products  accumulate in stunted cilia, suggesting that abnormal or lack of cilia or defects in IFT may result in diseases such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD).