Among key points in making progress and succeeding with a therapeutic programme for children with disabilities is parental compliance with the regime for their child. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors influencing compliance with home therapy in the Jewish and Bedouin populations. Data were collected by structured questionnaires. A total of 193 families participated (84% response rate) with children who ranged in age from 6 months to 6 years (mean age at first visit to the centre was 9.5 years in Jews and 16.1 years in Bedouin). Compliance was significantly lower among the Bedouin. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the strongest contributory factor in lack of compliance was being Bedouin. The second factor was intensity of questioning destiny, indicating that parents with these feelings may be less likely to comply with therapeutic regimes. Other factors which were associated with compliance were parents' education and socioeconomic status: lower levels on these dimensions corresponded with lower parental compliance. These results were illuminated by a trial intervention programme for Bedouin families which involved telephone contact, translation facilities, and detailed explanations during visits to the centre. Intervention increased the compliance rate of the Bedouin appointments with specialists to 76% (91 of 120 appointments) thereby reaching similar levels to those of the Jewish group. These preliminary results indicate that the strong association between non-compliance and being Bedouin may be due to factors of communication, and that the Bedouin are receptive to therapeutic interventions when communicated in their own language.